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"The end of the world is very long"

“The end of the world is very long”

In his new book “Towards the End of Time” (Ed. Flamorian), Brian Green, a global expert on string theory and a professor at Columbia University in NY, tells us how it all started. After all, that’s how everything ends. The incredibly popular story is, in fact, a reminder that we are only passing through the earth …

Paris competition. Your book is called “Until the End of Time,” which means it had a beginning. But can we really talk about a “beginning” for the Big Bank?
Brian Green. Theories we rely on based on observations and mathematical analyzes suggest that there may have been a beginning. This is the dominant thesis. But without the beginning of the greatest reality, our universe could have had a beginning. In my book, I mainly focus on our universe. Who had a beginning, how the future flows from it. Let me explain how we got into this reality, taking into account the laws of physics we know today. But is this the beginning of it all? No one knows, that’s another question.

What do you think of the multiverses theory that arises from the hypothesis that the Big Bang will be the eternal restoration of our universe, thus partially answering the question asked by Leibniz: “Why is there something?”
One way to answer this profound question is to imagine that nothing has arisen at all. But before our current Universe, there was another that came out of a Big Bank that swelled until it collapsed on its own. There is nothing but one of our Universe cycles, the continuum of which, without end, would not have had a beginning. But the question remains? Where does “all this” come from? Nowhere. The Overall Universe could have always been.

Your book begins with the sentence: “In time, everything alive will eventually disappear.” With such a depressing statement, you took the risk that your readers would close the book right now, wouldn’t you?
In fact … at first glance, this sentence may inspire the reader. But the moment you realize how limited we are, the time, the stars and how limited the earth is in all the structures we can observe, you realize how precious our moment is. How extraordinary it is that we can simply be! This awareness causes me gratitude and surprise, precisely because it is timeless. Unlike animals, for example, we are lucky to know about it.

To talk about time on a cosmic scale, you use the Empire State Building metaphor. Can you explain the size of the mark it represents?
In the light of the universe, the values ​​of time towards the future are transcendent. More than that came from the Big Bank: However, 13.8 billion years. But this is a blink of an eye about the future of the universe. So I took the 110-story skyscraper, the Empire State Building. Imagine that the cosmic chronology extends above all directions. Each phase is 10 times longer than the previous one. DRC marks the first 10 years after the Big Bank. The next marks the first century. 3rd, First Millennium. Since the Big Bang, we are on the 10th floor today. Very quickly, between the 12th and 13th floors, we get to 1000 billion years after the Big Bang. 13 to 14, 10,000 billion years after the Big Bang. Going up one stairway, we “travel” 9000 billion years, which is much longer than all previous sites. Humans live to be 100 years old, empires sometimes last 1000 years and most “hardy” species live a few million years. But in this rapid rise to understand the time of cosmic time, on the 86th floor, we are 10 years old86. The period of “incomprehensible” on a human scale. However, when you come upstairs, the length of time indicated by the 102nd floor, 86th floor, decreases with the thickness of the layer of paint covering the last phase of the Empire State building.

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At this level, we feel that most sites are “inanimate”. Everything made up of matter, stars, galaxies, and planets dissolved over time. If I could stay alive and observe the universe from one floor, I would want to go to the 50th place, for example. But as a living being, I already knew I would be missing in the 11th …

Time behaves strangely around a black hole

Time is one of the great mysteries of the universe, but there are no timeless dots in the universe, or at least freezing: like black holes?
Time has the mysterious and unexpected properties revealed by the science of the 20th century. One of them is, in fact, that time behaving strangely around a black hole. Also, deep in a black hole. Or if one moves at a very high speed compared to another who is stable. Time is running out for one. Not to the other. Science has made it possible to understand and measure in some cases these phenomena of time, but we have not yet answered the basic questions: What is time? Where does he come from? Apart from black holes, there are parts of the universe where the concept of time is not even understood? Are there items in Le Temps? Are the atoms of time the same as the atoms and molecules of the structures of matter? These are questions we have no answers to. Since all human experiences take place over a period of time, it would be surprising to have a more in-depth understanding of what the concept of time is.

Would it violate the laws of physics if time still persisted?
There are events in space where time still stands. On the contrary, it is the moment when our understanding of physics collapses. On paper, where our equations end at a point, time still stands. But we do not know what is going on inside a black hole, and in theory, mathematics implies that time is still stable. But is this true? We do not know much about the possible realities of time standing still. But we can at least imagine that thanks to mathematics.

One of the most surprising ideas in your book is when you try to explain how consciousness evolved, how difficult it is to define it in the end. You put forward the crazy hypothesis that particles have a kind of protocons! How?
The riddle of consciousness runs deep. When particles are arranged in the right structure and move in the best direction, how can objects like particles end up creating the thought experience we know? How do you go from a physical process to an indefinable sense process? Tough question. This is a hypothesis widely developed by the Australian philosopher David Salmers: if emotionless particles can organize and organize themselves to create emotions, thoughts and a ghost without spirit or thoughts, then it is necessary to consider this crazy concept of particles! Perhaps they naturally have a small amount of these properties. It is organized in a certain order and creates a structure as a result of the consciousness that we all have. It is a serious idea to imagine that particles, apart from their spiral or their mass, may have these properties. This is a philosophical idea, but researchers who are really focused on it will tell you that by settling all options for explaining and scientifically proving certain facts about consciousness, they are reduced to imagining radical ideas. If it is proved that science cannot explain with the laws of physics where our thoughts, feelings, senses or feelings come from, then after settling all the hypotheses, it is one. But other researchers, including myself, did not think we had encouraged all possibilities before coming to this conclusion. Consciousness is a product of this process if you have enough particles, ordered in the right way, moving in the right way, with a high degree of complexity. But so far no one was able to send in the perfect solution.

Einstein was overwhelmed by technology

You are one of the experts in string theory on the principle of “everything” that unites the two pillars of modern physics, but still does not apply. Why is she hanging out? Because, is it too small to notice the dimensions of the game?
Yes, this is the main issue. Einstein spent 30 years trying to find an integrated theory that allowed us to fully integrate all of our understanding of physics. This must be combined with Einstein’s general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. One makes it possible to understand the infinite big and the other, the infinite small. A problem that has not yet been solved. String theory, for many scientists, is the best idea to achieve this. In this theory, we imagine that particles are vibrations of small fibers called strings. The idea is that a particle is no longer the “point” of matter, but the vibrational fruit of a string, allowing gravity and quantum mechanics to be brought together. At least on paper. From this perspective, string theory has achieved one of its goals. This is the reunion theory, which works mathematically. But we have no observations or tests to confirm it. Because string theory operates on countless small quantities. We do not have the technology to test it in these dimensions. This will not be achieved even by the LHC, or the next, more powerful, probably next generation. It takes the combination of a theoretical advancement that allows to gather unexpected clues from theory, and a technological advancement that allows us to push the boundaries of what can be observed. When will this happen? I know nothing.

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Einstein thought we could never find out Gravitational waves Still …
That’s right. We would like to see these examples as a model of a theory, which is unusually difficult to test, but it was in the end.

Do you think that if a trace of life were to be found on Mars, it would mean that life, at least twice as developed, expects the enormity of probabilities in the universe?
Like many, my intuition makes me think that many opportunities for life have developed, at least one thing we know, is that there is a real chance for it to exist. In fact, somewhere else. In contrast, the question of whether life is in a brilliant form involves the ability to build radio telescopes and communicate over wide distances. If a meteorite had not fallen to Earth, dinosaurs might still be orbiting Earth. We will not be there. No life form attempts to send messages from our planet into space. The big puzzle is whether there is a “brilliant” life. If we could find a life form on Mars with the same structure as on Earth, it would certainly be an incredible discovery. But it does not have the same impact if we see a lifestyle that is not like ours. With different biochemical signature. Except that the Earth may have brought life to Mars, if we find evidence of a life form different from ours, or vice versa, by the impact of a collision, we will be sure that another life form appeared. This, no doubt, means that it could have happened anywhere else in the universe.

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