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Une image composite formée de photos de l'observatoire de Las Cumbres et du télescope spatial Hubble montrant la supernova à capture d'électrons 2018zd (le cercle, en haut à droite) et sa galaxie hôte NGC 2146 (vers la gauche). © Nasa/STScI/J. DePasquale ; Observatoire de Las Cumbres

We would have last noticed an attractive supernova with electron capture

After the antimatter supernovae, the electron capture supernovae are here. This concept is about 40 years old, but the series of solid observations that the Universe knew the speculations of astrophysicists, and that the supernova SN 2018zd is indeed an example of this fascinating phenomenon, describes the famous supernova from 1054.

An international teamAstronomers It comes down to knowing that it is the first definitive example of a genre Supernova Has been predicted in foreign theory for nearly 40 years, in particular Number simulations Learned, finally discovered. These researchers have published an article Natural astronomy (A version is available arXiv) About the supernova S.N. Occurred in 2018zd Galaxy NGC 2146, about 31 millionLight years From Milky Way.

The Photons of SN 2018zd first fell into the web Los Compress Laboratory But, because there were so many in the supernova Contradictions This did not allow them to fit into the structure of the now well-known two major types of supernovae, and astronomers entered Nuspier’s astronomical archives, which contained memories of galaxy observations. NGC 2146, do with Telescope Hubble. Images of this restricted spiral galaxy Galaxy From Giraffe, RevealedStar The forerunner of SN 2018zd is said to be a super star, a super-sign branch of giants (Super-symptomatic giant branch Or Sagb in English).

Nuclear astronomy, the key to supernovae

It was not until the early 1930s that astronomers Walter Bad and Fritz Zwicky realized the need to introduce a new genre in astronomy. novae, These very bright unstable stars appear only once in the sky and then disappear forever. Then the name they propose will create a fortune: Supernova. My Compagnie de Rudolf Minkowski, Astronomer And the nephew of the famous mathematician Herman Minkowski, Pat realized that these supernovae could be divided into two types. Spectral lines And the properties of the light curves are not particularly uniform with changes over several weeks. Other categories will be included, but this work is in the form of a modern classification with SN II and SN Ia.

In the 1930s, Walter Bad and Fritz Zwicky understood that Chadwick’s discovery was too soon Neutron In 1932, some supernovae exploded. With themDecline Dynamic stars Neutron stars. In 1938, Robert Oppenheimer With his student Volkoff, Richard Dolman uses conclusions about the spheres of fluids General relativity, And makes the first real calculations considering the neutron stars. In early 1939, these two researchers presented them as star-sized nuclei. Together with fellow student Hartland Snyder, Oppenheimer will study what happens if such objects fall under the force of gravity, laying the foundation for the theory Black holes.

The production of a neutron star usually occurs with at least 10 stars Mass Solar cells, with their iron core, form the basis of thermonuclear reactions and produce enoughEnergy In the form of photons Radiation pressure The result can be counterproductive Gravity Of the star. Then it collapses, forming an SN II supernova. During this decline, the pressure is like that Electrons Around iron cores Protons Give neutrons and Flow of neutrinos According to the reverse reaction to decay Radiation Beta.

In the case of an SN Ia, things are completely different. It all starts with a star with a mass of less than 8 solar masses, which is formed by the loss of mass and which has a recessive center with atoms.Oxygen And Carbon basically. Thermonuclear reactions also stand there, as long as there is mass White dwarf Nothing more than popular Chandrasekhar’s range (About 1.4 solar masses), the star does not collapse under its effect Gravity Because a Gas Decomposition of relativistic electrons as we say in the words Quantum physics. The white dwarf will explode with a thermonuclear explosion Thing By accretion Its mass is found to be greater than that of Chandrasekhar.

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A relative electron gas absorbed by nuclei

The attentive reader will notice that so far there is no question as to the fate of stars with masses between 8 and 10 solar masses. The theory of electron supernovae was designed in the early 1980s to clarify the fate that awaits them. Kenchi Nomoto de l University de Tokyo, Then by other nuclear astronomers.

As for these stars, they form into a white dwarf, but their heart begins to thaw Neon And you வெளிமம் Instead of carbon. There comes a time when the decomposed electron gas is captured by these nuclei, although the star is not large enough to generate thermonuclear reactions leading to iron nuclei.

When the electron gas disappears, the Degenerative pressure Therefore, it is a new type of supernova for energy output and gravitational pull, giving the electron supernova, but identical with the center of the neutrons remaining by the explosion.

The birth star of SN 2018zd was actually a sock, so sufficiently, chemical composition anomalies were detected and the supernova did not generate many radioactive elements, arguing with other characteristics to make SN 2018zd a much stronger candidate. Title of the Electron Supernova.

As such, it gives more hope to a hypothesis proposed in the case of a mythical supernova, of which in 1054, we still observe what remains today and the resulting neutron star. Pulsar. In fact, some astronomers were allowed to know the supernova, according to the data of the time Crab Nebula The neutron was much brighter compared to the SN II models that make up the star. They decided it was his Brightness S.N. As seen in the case of 2018zd, the eruption of the supernova may have been artificially increased by the collision with the object rejected by the parent star, and the electron supernova models predict significant mass losses before the star explodes.

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