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L'astrophysicienne Françoise Combes, la médaille d’or 2020 du CNRS, professeure au Collège de France et chercheuse à l'Observatoire de Paris. © Jul / Futura

Do these three puzzles represent a new astronomy and cosmology?

For 20 years of Futura, it is interesting to point out some fascinating lessons in astronomical physics, which still raises many questions. Antiquity is a dark thing that has haunted us for decades.

Article by Laurent Sacco Takes the latest heated discussions Constellations Intense localization called UDG (Ultra-diffuse galaxies) They are large galaxies, but their massStars Is Stellar dogs. Their surface density is very low, and the theory predicts that they will dominate Black material. On the other hand, interacting with some very large galaxies is not true.

Is this a problem of measurement, of interpretation? Or they are not in balance yet because they are disturbed Wave forces ? These galaxies are experiments for alternative theories to dark matter.

Another area where progress has been rapid in recent years Rapid radio explosions, Or FRB (Fast radio explosions) Duncan Lorimer and his collaborators, in 2007, published their discovery, and, for many years, FRBs were so mysterious that they did not repeat themselves; Couldn’t figure out which one Stars Were responsible for it. Over the past decade, more and more FRBs, some in the Milky Way, have discovered it again and again Neutron stars, And especially objects Magnetic field Serious, The Magnets.

Today, pioneering toolsInterferometer SKA (Square kilometer lineFind hundreds of them, as described Natalie Meyer In His article. However, not all the mysteries are solved …

Presentation of Professor Francois Comps’ 2016-2017 Course: “Models of Dark Energy and the Universe”. College of France

Intriguing and paradoxical accelerated expansion of the cosmos

Tension about value Hubble constant This is a new source of debate, and it will lead to a new discovery Physique (Editor’s note: An article on this discussion is being published today in 20 Years of Futura)

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The Hubble-Lematre constant Has a turbulent history. Edwin Hubble Discovered in 1929 with measurements Speed Distance obtained by the law of the recently discovered time-luminosity relationship of the Vesto Slipper galaxies Cefits, By Henrietta Levitt, In 1909. This first relationship between the distance and velocity of galaxies is a law proportional to a constant H.0 Is approximately 10 times the constant known today. Father Lomotre was the first to realize that it was not really a question Doppler effect But a Expansion Location, provided Equations d ‘Einstein From General relativity 1915. Going into time, he baptizes the primitive universeNuclear It is the oldest Big Bang With Fred Hoyle in 1949.

This famous constant is a lot different during XXe For centuries, the distances of galaxies have not been well known. It varies between 50 and 100 km / h / mb, which has a major impact on the age of the universe: plus H0 Large, small age of the universe.

Some stars are older than the universe!

Over time, advances in telescopes have emerged in the form of a new distance indicator, a new standard candle. Supernovae Type Ia: They help to determine greater distances than cephalopods because they are much brighter. By measuring the duration of their curve Light, Can count them Brightness Intrinsic, and therefore their distance. Surprise: These supernovae were farther away than expected due to their spectral change. This is how the acceleration of expansion was discovered in 1998 (Nobel Prize 2011), Which makes the age of the universe correspond to the age of the stars.

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For almost 20 years, all observations (with cosmological background) WMAP, Plank, Gravity lenses, SNIa, etc.), agreed to establish an integration model of the universe, 30% material, 70%Dark energy, And a standard h0 = 70 km / v / MBC. In recent years, however, a tension has developed between the H value0 Measured locally (cefits and other standard candles) and subtracted from Cosmology LCDM, with the physics of the Adi universe: h0= 73 on one side and 66 km / h / MBC on the other.

Does it come from Mass of neutrinos ? ஐந்தறிவு,Dark energy ? Or some other physics?

The place to find is still huge …

For 13.7 billion years, the universe has not stopped forming. Contrary to what our eyes tell us when we think of the sky, what it contains is not static. Physicists make observations and simulations at different ages in the universe in which they re-direct its formation and evolution. It seems that dark matter has played a major role in the formation of the great structures seen today from the beginning of the universe. CEA Research

This year, the future Celebrating its 20th anniversary. 20 years of discovery, research and popularity of science.

To fully enjoy this adventure with us, do not hesitate:

  • Send us your birthday messages and greetings Livre d’Or special 20 years On This page.
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Look forward to celebrating these two decades of success, we have Many surprises Until the end of 2021!