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Si la vie a existé sous la surface de Mars, elle pourrait avoir survécu jusqu’à aujourd’hui, assure des chercheurs de l’université Brown (États-Unis). © ustas, Adobe Stock

Mars may have life beneath its surface

Was there life on Mars? The question remains open. But researchers argue that if it had, it could still survive in pockets of water below the surface of the Red Planet.

Last February, Diligence, last rover From NASA, Landed on Mars. With the main purpose: to search for traces of past life on the red planet. For the first results, we will have to wait a little longer. But without further ado, Brown University researchers (United States) today argue that there may be microbial life forms on Mars.

To do this, they rely on data Rover interested And composite analysis of other spacecraft orbiting Mars Meteors Tuesday. Rocks torn from the surface of the Red Planet reached our Earth. And pioneer representative of a large area Top tile Tuesday. According to the researchers, these rocks can be produced because they are in constant contact with waterEnergy Chemical needed to support microbial communities. Like walking in the depths of the earth.

“We still do not know if there was life below the surface of Mars. Then we can only say who it is, we think it will be even on the site. There is enough energy to maintain it to this day.”, Refers to Jesse Tarnas, now a researcher Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA), a Brown University Press.

At the base of Mars, the elements needed to support life

Let us remember that the earth, more precisely, the underground, in the depths of our planet, covers a vast area பயோம். It develops without direct contact with our world above. The creatures that live in it are scarce Light, But they derive their products from by-products Chemical reactions Triggered by the contact of rocks with water. Radiology, for example, occurs when radioactive elements emit water-separating radiation. Oxygen And en Hydrogen. The latter dissolves in the remaining water. Oxygen is absorbed Minerals As Pyrite. Sulfate ores are then formed. Microbes, on the one hand, can consume hydrogen as fuel, and on the other hand, can “burn” this fuel using the oxygen stored in the sulfates.

So the researchers hoped to find radioactive materials in Martian soil. In Radioactive elements As Thorium, L ‘Uranium Where Potassium. But sulfide minerals are also capable of converting to sulfates. And rock units with a hole space that can hold water.

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To find life on Mars, we have to search the foundation.

This is what they saw in different genres Mars meteorites. Especially in violations Sorry – Rocks made of pieces a Subject The smallest – more than 3.6 billion years old and derived from the surface of the Red Planet. “We studiedAtmosphere Of Mars, mapping its surface at different wavelengths and landing in half a dozen places. This work continues to tell a lot about the past of the Red Planet. But if we want to think about the possibilities of the present life, the foundation is where we need to look without context. ”, Concludes Jack Mustard, a researcher at the University of Toronto (Canada).

Is there life on the surface of Mars?

The question of life on Mars has been asked for decades. Diligence, The latest NASA rover, may give us some answers on this matter. But one thing Astronomer Today suggests that it is necessary to wait to see more clearly the European Space Agency’s next rover, the arrival of the Red Planet. Thanks to the tool that allows him to explore the soil of Mars.

Article Natalie Mayor Released July 31, 2020

This Thursday, July 30, 2020, Diligence, The new NASA rover leaves Earth and heads for Mars. The visit is scheduled for February 2021. Purpose: To search the Red Planet for traces of microscopic life forms. One step, one step Scientist at New York University in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), not in vain. According to Dmitra Adri, the soil of Mars may have optimal conditions Life development.

These are evidences of the past existence of an environment Aquas This led astronomers to imagine life as it might appear The red planet. But, with the erosion of its atmosphere, Mars suffered an impact Climate change And its living space is limited. Very little water persists on the surface and only in form Salt water And snow.

Exomars 2022 to see more clearly

In the basement, things may have changed differently. In terms of a combination Digital models, Data on space travel and exploration Ecosystems of Deep caves in the earth, Dmitra Adri proposes methods of survival if ever on Mars.

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According to the researcher’s hypothesis, The Galactic cosmic radiation – It can penetrate several meters below the surface – Stimulates chemical reactions that provide the energy needed for life. Organisms that use such methods are already found on Earth, in similar chemical and radiological environments. To confirm this hypothesis, Dmitra Atri relied heavily on the European Space Agency’s next rover, Rosalind Franklin (That) – and Roscosmos -, rather than perseverance. ESA’s rover, scheduled to launch in 2022, will be equipped to explore the foundations of Mars and find microscopic life hidden there.

Life in the basement of Mars? Possibility, show researchers!

An Australian team takes conditions to maintain life similar to ours on Mars. Or “on” on the planet. The idea of ​​possible life on Mars soil is nothing new, but this new study is coming to an end Biosphere Microbes can easily grow at great depths in a volume of 3% of the Red Planet.

Article Jean-Luc Coud Dead Posted on 12/13/2011

On the surface of Mars, the temperature is very low (average -60 C) and where Pressure At sea level only a thousandth of what we know can only be in the form of water ice. So the idea of ​​floating animals, or even looking at pictures of bacteria, is ruled out. On Martian soil, on the other hand, the pressure is high, the temperature is high, and must be here and in liquid water flows or pockets. So this is what you need to look for potential microbes, many researchers think. This is a pity Mars Science Laboratory, Which embeds Robot Curiosity, Currently on the way to the planet, does not allow exploration Chemistry From the basement.

On earth, Micro-organisms Can live up to Depth of several kilometers. Even animals may like these depths. This year, a worm, Mephistopheles, Famous for living 4 km below the Earth’s surface.

About what Tuesday ? Led Australian team Charlie Lineweaver, From the National University of Australia, published in the journal Astrobiology The study of atmospheric and soil pressure and temperature conditions allows liquid water to contain more or less salt (first Salinity Moves freezing). They obtained a map of the planet showing these conditions from the depths of Mars to the atmosphere. Conclusion: According to their models, liquid water can be up to 310 km deep from the surface. The temperature is then 427 C and the pressure is 40,000 Bars (Hence it is the high pressure that allows to maintain the liquid state of the water). Researchers insist that this value of 310 km is equivalent to a quarter of the planet.

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Mars should change life for the better … for the heat

But of course, the range of 427 C is much higher for temperature and pressure than for living things on Earth, and the authors of the study stick to this similarity. They also point out that temperatures rise more rapidly with depths than the Earth. In the Mars Crust, in fact, we get 5 ருக்கு per kilometer, against 25 on our largest planet. At a depth of dozens of kilometers, they end up, there must be some cool places.

At room temperature, the Earthly life Known as -20 ° C to 122 to C, these are the limits considered by the authors. Their study puts this range at 7 to 36 km from the surface. The researchers conclude that 3.2% of the size of Mars is habitable because the pressure in this zone is unlimited for them. By imagining that Mars creatures are very resistant Heat (Contradictory hypothesis for a planet colder than Earth), they are less likely to go …

According to them, the big unknown is the permeability of the deep soil because life needs free space. You need at least fractures, fissures, even caves … but, according to the authors, the crust is permeable and at least 85 km long.

With pressure and temperature terrain life, the suitability of mapping areas that are at least compatible with microorganisms lies in this study, and it is significant for its results. We have not yet described the environment of the Martian biosphere. It is now time to dig deeper into future Mars missions.

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