We learn it in physics and chemistry, in fourth grade – but sometimes forget it after a few years. On Earth, there are three different phases of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous. However, at very high and very low temperatures, the material acquires properties that open up new possibilities.
When we place ourselves in a very hot environment and throw bombs at the atom with sufficient energy, the electrons form in the body, thus forming the ionized plasma: this is the fourth state of matter.
When you turn the thermostat slightly upwards, protons and neutrons decompose and form Quark-gluon plasma: This is the fifth level of the object.
On the other hand, at very low temperatures, different types of particles form the Bose-Einstein capacitors and the fermionic capacitors, the sixth and seventh stages of matter.
Today, these last two states can only be achieved under extreme laboratory conditions. So it is necessary to update your old knowledge, if it has not already been done: in total, there are actually seven known levels, not three.
Labs and dark matter
For those who have trouble remembering their lessons: On earth, everything is made of atoms. Some atoms combine to form molecules, while others go their separate ways as autonomous entities.
No matter how many atoms there are in a given chemical compound (water, oxygen, methane, helium), it is the combination of temperature and pressure that determines whether it is a solid, a liquid or a gas.
Water freezes at low temperature and normal pressure, becomes a liquid at high pressures or high temperatures, and finally becomes gaseous at high temperatures or very low pressures.
At critical temperatures above 374 C, this difference breaks down. At low pressure you get one more gas, but at high pressure a hybrid of both gas and liquid properties is formed. Upon further heating, the molecules ionize and form plasma: this is the fourth stage of matter.
The New York Times illustrated this fourth situation using the example of microwave grapes in a very intensive video.
This is where the nuclear epic of matter ends. For the rest, we have to go to the side of the subatomic world: the world of particles smaller than the atom.
Notice Seventh stage of matter, fermionic capacitor For example, it is necessary to succeed in achieving extraordinary conditions in the laboratory: temperatures below 50 nanokelvins, the magnetic field used will vary over time.
In vast space, on the other hand, the realm of neutrinos (made of fermions) and dark matter (containing bosons), these capacitors are likely to form legion and naturally வுக The key to solving the mystery is that the theme can be rare at all levels of matter.
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